Pacific meridional mode and El Nino-southern oscillation Academic Article uri icon


  • We present intriguing evidence that the majority of El Nio events over the past four decades are preceded by a distinctive sea-surface warming and southwesterly wind anomaly in the vicinity of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) during the boreal spring. This phenomenon, known as the Meridional Mode (MM), is shown to be intrinsic to the thermodynamic coupling between the atmosphere and ocean. The MM effectively acts as a conduit through which the extratropical atmosphere influences ENSO. Modeling results further suggest that the MM plays a vital role in the seasonal phase-locking behavior of ENSO. The findings provide a new perspective for understanding the important role of thermodynamic ocean-atmosphere feedback in ENSO and may have profound implications for ENSO prediction, particularly the unresolved issue of the spring predictability barrier. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

published proceedings


altmetric score

  • 3

author list (cited authors)

  • Chang, P., Zhang, L. i., Saravanan, R., Vimont, D. J., Chiang, J., Ji, L., Seidel, H., & Tippett, M. K.

citation count

  • 234

complete list of authors

  • Chang, Ping||Zhang, Li||Saravanan, R||Vimont, Daniel J||Chiang, John CH||Ji, Link||Seidel, Howard||Tippett, Michael K

publication date

  • August 2007