Immunomodulatory action of dietary fish oil and targeted deletion of intestinal epithelial cell PPAR in inflammation-induced colon carcinogenesis.
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The ligand-activated transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-δ is highly expressed in colonic epithelial cells; however, the role of PPARδ ligands, such as fatty acids, in mucosal inflammation and malignant transformation has not been clarified. Recent evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory/chemoprotective properties of fish oil (FO)-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may be partly mediated by PPARδ. Therefore, we assessed the role of PPARδ in modulating the effects of dietary n-3 PUFAs by targeted deletion of intestinal epithelial cell PPARδ (PPARδ(ΔIEpC)). Subsequently, we documented changes in colon tumorigenesis and the inflammatory microenvironment, i.e., local [mesenteric lymph node (MLN)] and systemic (spleen) T cell activation. Animals were fed chemopromotive [corn oil (CO)] or chemoprotective (FO) diets during the induction of chronic inflammation/carcinogenesis. Tumor incidence was similar in control and PPARδ(ΔIEpC) mice. FO reduced mucosal injury, tumor incidence, colonic STAT3 activation, and inflammatory cytokine gene expression, independent of PPARδ genotype. CD8(+) T cell recruitment into MLNs was suppressed in PPARδ(ΔIEpC) mice. Similarly, FO reduced CD8(+) T cell numbers in the MLN. Dietary FO independently modulated MLN CD4(+) T cell activation status by decreasing CD44 expression. CD11a expression by MLN CD4(+) T cells was downregulated in PPARδ(ΔIEpC) mice. Lastly, splenic CD62L expression was downregulated in PPARδ(ΔIEpC) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. These data demonstrate that expression of intestinal epithelial cell PPARδ does not influence azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate-induced colon tumor incidence. Moreover, we provide new evidence that dietary n-3 PUFAs attenuate intestinal inflammation in an intestinal epithelial cell PPARδ-independent manner.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol
author list (cited authors)
Monk, J. M., Kim, W., Callaway, E., Turk, H. F., Foreman, J. E., Peters, J. M., ... Chapkin, R. S.
complete list of authors
Monk, Jennifer M||Kim, Wooki||Callaway, Evelyn||Turk, Harmony F||Foreman, Jennifer E||Peters, Jeffrey M||He, Weimin||Weeks, Brad||Alaniz, Robert C||McMurray, David N||Chapkin, Robert S