On necessary conditions for the secondary flow of non-Newtonian fluids in straight tubes
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In this paper, we provide a necessary condition for the development of steady secondary flow of non-Newtonian fluids in straight tubes of arbitrary bounded cross-section under constant body force potential, without making any specific constitutive assumption. Speziale  showed, that for certain models involving quadratic terms in the kinematical tensors, axial flow is possible in straight tubes. However, his claim that secondary flows are not possible is only true under the additional assumption that the equations have unique solutions. © 1994.
author list (cited authors)
Yu-Ning, H., & Rajagopal, K. R.