A note on the temperature dependence of the normal stress moduli
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In this analysis we establish necessary and sufficient conditions which the normal stress modulus α1(θ) and its derivative dα1(θ)/dθ ought to satisfy if a homogeneous incompressible second grade fluid is to meet the requirement that the specific internal energy of the fluid be a minimum when the fluid is locally at rest. We also require that all arbitrary motions of the fluid meet the Clausius-Duhem inequality. It is found that requiring that the specific internal energy of the fluid be a minimum when the fluid is locally at rest is not equivalent to a similar requirement on the specific Helmholtz free energy. © 1981.
author list (cited authors)
Rajagopal, K. R., & Wineman, A. S.