On constitutive equations for electrorheological materials
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Constitutive equations for electrorheological (ER) fluids have been based on experimental results for steady shearing flows and constant electric fields. The fluids have been modeled as being rigid until a yield stress is reached. Additional stress is then proportional to the shear rate. Recent experimental results indicate that ER materials have a regime of solid-like response when deformed from a rest state. They behave in a viscoelastic-like manner under sinusoidal shearing and exhibit time-dependent response under sudden changes in shear rate or electric field. In this work, a constitutive theory for ER materials is presented which accounts for these recent experimental observations. The stress is given by a functional of the deformation gradient history and the electric field vector. Using the methods of continuum mechanics, a general three-dimensional constitutive equation is obtained. A sample constitutive equation is introduced which is then used to determine the response of an ER material for different shear histories. The calculated shear response is shown to be qualitatively similar to that observed experimentally. © 1995 Springer-Verlag.
author list (cited authors)
Wineman, A. S., & Rajagopal, K. R.