GAS MIXING FOR ACHIEVING SUITABLE CONDITIONS FOR SINGLE POINT AEROSOL SAMPLING IN A STRAIGHT TUBE: EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL RESULTS
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Experimental measurements of velocity and tracer gas concentration are taken in a straight tube to evaluate the effectiveness of mixing in achieving conditions as required by ANSI N13.1-1999 for single point extractive sampling from stacks and ducts of nuclear facilities. Mixing is evaluated for inlet turbulent intensities of 1.5%, 10%, and 20%, achieved by introducing various bi-plane grids, and for conditions generated by a commercial static gas mixer. The data obtained (at Reynolds number = 15,000) highlight the importance of inlet turbulence intensity in the process of turbulent dispersion of a dilute gas. The gas mixer does not introduce significant pressure losses and unlike bi-plane grids, the turbulence downstream of the mixer is not homogenous. A judicious choice of the release location that uses the large scale eddies and inhomogeneity of the turbulence ensures that the specified ANSI N13.1-1999 criteria are attained within 7 diameters downstream of the duct inlet. This is significantly more effective than a bi-plane grid where even with 20% inlet intensity the criteria are met only at 21 diameters downstream. The predictions of a proposed semi-empirical correlation match favorably with data. For example, at 18 diameters downstream with inlet intensities of 1.5% and 10%, the predicted coefficients of variation (COVs) of 150% and 65% are close to the actual values of 154% and 50%; where the COV of a set of measurements is the ratio of the standard deviation of the set to its mean value. The corresponding results obtained using commercially available software are 141% and 12%. Results from a particle-tracking model show good qualitative trends, but they should not be used to determine compliance with the requirements of the ANSI standard.
author list (cited authors)
Anand, M., McFarland, A. R., & Rajagopal, K. R.