The effects of residual stresses and degradation on the response of viscoplastic functionally graded materials
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Functionally graded materials (FGMs), having ceramic and metallic constituents, are commonly used for extreme temperature applications. Under extreme temperature changes, the mismatches in the thermo-mechanical properties of the ceramics and metallic constituents could cause pronounced thermal stresses and could lead to degradation in the properties of the constituents. High stresses in the metallic constituent lead to plastic deformations and high tensile stresses in the ceramic constituent induce cracking. An elastic-viscoplastic micromechanical model is formulated for analyzing residual stresses and strains and degradation in ceramic-metal FGMs undergoing temperature changes due to conduction of heat. A degradation parameter that depends on the temperature and strain is introduced in order to determine the level of material degradation in the ceramics and metallic constituents. The Perzyna viscoplastic model is considered for the metallic constituent while the ceramic constituent is assumed linear elastic. The material parameters in these constituents change with the degradation. The problem leads to time-dependent coupled thermal, deformation, and degradation behaviors. The micromechanical model is implemented in a displacement based finite element (FE), which is used to determine the performance of the viscoplastic functionally graded structures subject to external thermo-mechanical stimuli. 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
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