Multi-scale modeling of time-dependent response of smart sandwich constructions Academic Article uri icon


  • Polymer and polymer based composite structures exhibit time-dependent response, leading to their being described as viscoelastic bodies. The rate of creep (or stress relaxation) in viscoelastic bodies increases with increasing the temperature of the bodies. In this study, we are interested in analyzing the time-dependent response of smart sandwich composites comprising of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) skins, polyurethane foam core, and lead zirconate titanate (PZT) wafers embedded in the GFRP skins. The PZT is used to monitor lifetime performance of sandwich composites. A multi-scale model is developed to integrate different constitutive models of the constituents in the sandwich structures. Quasi-static and creep tests are conducted for bulk epoxy, GFRP, polyurethane foam, and sandwich specimens under uniaxial tension and bending. The tests were done at room temperature and at 80C. The experimental data are used for material characterization and model verification. The multi-scale model that is developed can be used to understand the effect of different responses of the constituents on the overall time-dependent behavior of sandwich structures and examine the feasibility of using PZT wafers for monitoring lifetime performance of sandwich structures. 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Kim, J. S., Arronche, L., Farrugia, A., Muliana, A., & La Saponara, V.

citation count

  • 19

complete list of authors

  • Kim, Jeong Sik||Arronche, L||Farrugia, A||Muliana, A||La Saponara, V

publication date

  • January 2011