Time dependent behavior of ferroelectric materials undergoing changes in their material properties with electric field and temperature
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This paper presents a time dependent polarization constitutive model suitable for predicting nonlinear polarization and electro-mechanical strain responses of ferroelectric materials subject to various histories of electric fields. The constitutive model is derived based on a single integral form with nonlinear (electric field and temperature dependent) integrand. The total polarization consists of the time-dependent and residual components. The residual component of the polarization is due to polarization switching in the ferroelectric materials. We use an 'internal clock' concept to incorporate the effect of electric field on the rate of polarization. The corresponding strain response is determined through the use of third order piezoelectric constant and/or fourth order electrostrictive constant that vary with polarization stage. It is assumed that in absence of polarization, both piezoelectric and electrostrictive constants are zero. To incorporate the effect of temperature on the overall polarization behavior all material parameters in the constitutive model are allowed to change with the ambient temperature. We present numerical studies on the effect of time, temperature, and electric field on the response of ferroelectric material followed by verification of the constitutive model. Experimental data on lead zirconate titanate (PZT) materials available in the literature are used to verify the model. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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