Sensory systems display remarkable plasticity and are under strong evolutionary selection. The Mexican cavefish,
Astyanax mexicanus, consists of eyed river-dwelling surface populations, and multiple independent cave populations which have converged on eye loss, providing the opportunity to examine the evolution of sensory circuits in response to environmental perturbation. Functional analysis across multiple transgenic populations expressing GCaMP6s showed that functional connectivity of the optic tectum largely did not differ between populations, except for the selective loss of negatively correlated activity within the cavefish tectum, suggesting positively correlated neural activity is resistant to an evolved loss of input from the retina. Further, analysis of surface-cave hybrid fish reveals that changes in the tectum are genetically distinct from those encoding eye-loss. Together, these findings uncover the independent evolution of multiple components of the visual system and establish the use of functional imaging in A. mexicanusto study neural circuit evolution.