Students with access to 3D study materials are better able to translate spatial relationships between abdominal organs and correctly interpret abnormal radiographic images. Academic Article uri icon


  • Previous studies have demonstrated evidence that three-dimensional (3D) visualization techniques can be helpful as learning tools. This prospective randomized control study was designed to test the hypothesis that 3D learning tools would have improved translation into interpreting normal and abnormal canine abdominal radiographic images over traditional learning tools. Sagittal and dorsal plane 3D image scenes were created from CT scans, with canine abdominal organs labeled using virtual reality and 3D visualization software tools. Eighty students from the first- and second-year veterinary classes at a single institution participated in the study. The control group studied canine abdominal anatomy from a textbook and the experimental group studied canine abdominal anatomy using the 3D learning tools for a set time. Each participant then took a three-part written examination to assess their learning for the following categories: 3D anatomy organ identification, radiographic anatomy organ identification of normal structures and radiographic anatomy organ identification of abnormal structures. All participants were also asked to identify the sex of the test patient from the 3D study. Participants from the experimental group performed statistically better than participants in the control group for all parts of the examination, with the exception of normal radiographic anatomy.

published proceedings

  • Vet Radiol Ultrasound

author list (cited authors)

  • Means, K., Voges, A., & Ritter, N. L.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Means, Kari||Voges, Andra||Ritter, Nicola L

publication date

  • May 2023