Earliest Evidence of Toxocara sp. in a 1.2-Million-Yr-Old Extinct Hyena (Pachycrocuta brevirostris) Coprolite from Northwest Pakistan. Academic Article uri icon


  • The study of fossil parasites can provide insight into the antiquity of host-parasite relationships and the origins and evolution of these paleoparasites. Here, a coprolite (fossilized feces) from the 1.2-million-yr-old paleontological site of Haro River Quarry in northwestern Pakistan was analyzed for paleoparasites. Micromorphological thin sectioning and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) analysis confirms the coprolite belonged to a bone-eating carnivore, likely the extinct giant short-faced hyena (Pachycrocuta brevirostris). Parasitological analysis shows the coprolite to be positive for Toxocara sp. To our knowledge, this is the earliest evidence for Toxocara sp. found.

published proceedings

  • J Parasitol

altmetric score

  • 1.6

author list (cited authors)

  • Perri, A. R., Heinrich, S., Gur-Arieh, S., & Saunders, J. J.

citation count

  • 11

complete list of authors

  • Perri, Angela R||Heinrich, Susann||Gur-Arieh, Shira||Saunders, Jeffrey J

publication date

  • February 2017