Grain refinement of T91 alloy by equal channel angular pressing Conference Paper uri icon


  • We report on the grain refinement of modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic-martensitic steel (T91) by equal channel angular pressing, a severe plastic deformation method. Microstructural refinement depends on processing temperature (300-700 °C) and extrusion strain (1.2-2.3). The average grain size has been refined by over an order of magnitude down to 300 nm, accompanied by a hardness increase of up to 70%. The refined microstructure undergoes little grain growth or softening up to 500 °C. At an annealing temperature of 700 °C or higher, significant softening occurs as a result of grain growth. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

author list (cited authors)

  • Foley, D. C., Hartwig, K. T., Maloy, S. A., Hosemann, P., & Zhang, X.

citation count

  • 22

publication date

  • May 2009