Grain refinement of T91 alloy by equal channel angular pressing Conference Paper uri icon


  • We report on the grain refinement of modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic-martensitic steel (T91) by equal channel angular pressing, a severe plastic deformation method. Microstructural refinement depends on processing temperature (300-700 C) and extrusion strain (1.2-2.3). The average grain size has been refined by over an order of magnitude down to 300 nm, accompanied by a hardness increase of up to 70%. The refined microstructure undergoes little grain growth or softening up to 500 C. At an annealing temperature of 700 C or higher, significant softening occurs as a result of grain growth. 2009 Elsevier B.V.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Foley, D. C., Hartwig, K. T., Maloy, S. A., Hosemann, P., & Zhang, X.

citation count

  • 27

complete list of authors

  • Foley, DC||Hartwig, KT||Maloy, SA||Hosemann, P||Zhang, X

publication date

  • January 2009