The Rationale for Vitamin, Mineral, and Cofactor Treatment in the Precision Medical Care of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Academic Article uri icon


  • Children with autism spectrum disorder may exhibit nutritional deficiencies due to reduced intake, genetic variants, autoantibodies interfering with vitamin transport, and the accumulation of toxic compounds that consume vitamins. Importantly, vitamins and metal ions are essential for several metabolic pathways and for neurotransmitter functioning. The therapeutic benefits of supplementing vitamins, minerals (Zinc, Magnesium, Molybdenum, and Selenium), and other cofactors (coenzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid, and tetrahydrobiopterin) are mediated through their cofactor as well as non-cofactor functions. Interestingly, some vitamins can be safely administered at levels far above the dose typically used to correct the deficiency and exert effects beyond their functional role as enzyme cofactors. Moreover, the interrelationships between these nutrients can be leveraged to obtain synergistic effects using combinations. The present review discusses the current evidence for using vitamins, minerals, and cofactors in autism spectrum disorder, the rationale behind their use, and the prospects for future use.

published proceedings

  • J Pers Med

altmetric score

  • 11.3

author list (cited authors)

  • Indika, N., Frye, R. E., Rossignol, D. A., Owens, S. C., Senarathne, U. D., Grabrucker, A. M., ... Deutz, N.

citation count

  • 2

complete list of authors

  • Indika, Neluwa-Liyanage R||Frye, Richard E||Rossignol, Daniel A||Owens, Susan C||Senarathne, Udara D||Grabrucker, Andreas M||Perera, Rasika||Engelen, Marielle PKJ||Deutz, Nicolaas EP

publication date

  • January 2023