Rapid analytical methods for on-site triage for traumatic brain injury. Academic Article uri icon


  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from an event that causes rapid acceleration and deceleration of the brain or penetration of the skull with an object. Responses to stimuli and questions, loss of consciousness, and altered behavior are symptoms currently used to justify brain imaging for diagnosis and therapeutic guidance. Tests based on such symptoms are susceptible to false-positive and false-negative results due to stress, fatigue, and medications. Biochemical markers of neuronal damage and the physiological response to that damage are being identified. Biosensors capable of rapid measurement of such markers in the circulation offer a solution for on-site triage, as long as three criteria are met: (a) Recognition reagents can be identified that are sufficiently sensitive and specific, (b) the biosensor can provide quantitative assessment of multiple markers rapidly and simultaneously, and (c) both the sensor and reagents are designed for use outside the laboratory.

published proceedings

  • Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif)

author list (cited authors)

  • North, S. H., Shriver-Lake, L. C., Taitt, C. R., & Ligler, F. S.

complete list of authors

  • North, Stella H||Shriver-Lake, Lisa C||Taitt, Chris R||Ligler, Frances S

publication date

  • March 2012