Differential Gene Expression of Innate Immune Response Genes Consequent to Solenopsis invicta Virus-3 Infection. Academic Article uri icon


  • The red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren (fire ant hereafter) is a global pest that inflicts billions of dollars in damages to the United States economy and poses a major threat on a global scale. Concerns with the broad-spectrum application of insecticides have facilitated the hunt for natural enemy-mediated controls. One of these, the virus Solenopsis invicta virus-3 (SINV-3 hereafter) is exceptionally virulent in laboratory settings. However, despite high mortality rates in the laboratory and documented widespread SINV-3 prevalence in the southern United States, the fire ant remains a major pest. To explore this paradox, we document the immune response elicited by the fire ant when infected with SINV-3. We sequence the fire ant transcriptome prior to and following infection with SINV-3, and identify and discuss in detail genes in immune response pathways differentially expressed following infection with SINV-3. This information provides insights into genes and pathways involved in the SINV-3 infection response in the fire ant and offers avenues to pursue, to suppress key immune response genes and force the fire ant to succumb to SINV-3 infection in the field.

published proceedings

  • Genes (Basel)

altmetric score

  • 2.85

author list (cited authors)

  • Holmes, V. R., & Johnston, J. S.

citation count

  • 1

complete list of authors

  • Holmes, V Renee||Johnston, J Spencer

publication date

  • January 2023


published in