The inelastic behavior of metals subject to loading reversal Academic Article uri icon


  • One of the consequences of memory effects in the plastic deformation of metals is the Bauschinger effect (Civilingenieur 27 (1881) 289-348), which manifests itself as a difference in the values of the yield stress in tension and compression for a material that has undergone plastic deformation. The Bauschinger effect has been modeled with the kinematic hardening rules e.g., Ziegler (Quart. Appl. Math. 17 (1959) 55) and Chaboche (Int. J. Plasticity 2 (1986) 149). These models, though, are not able to reproduce the stress-strain response accurately at points of loading reversal: it has been observed (Acta Metall. 34 (1986) 1553; Mater. Sci. Engineering A113 (1989) 441) that, for some materials, the stress has a plateau after the loading is reversed. This is not reflected by the kinematic hardening rule nor by its modifications. In this paper we will develop a general three dimensional model that is able to reproduce the stress-strain response at loading reversals and can be applied also to more general changes of loading direction. The central idea of our model is to link the hardening behavior of the material to thermodynamical quantities such as the stored energy due to cold work and the rate of dissipation. The predictions of the theory show good agreement with the stress-strain curve and also with the manner in which the stored energy varies with the inelastic strain, as obtained from experiments (Progress in Materials Science (1973) Vol. 17. Pergamon, Oxford; Trans. Met. Soc. AIME 224 (1962) 719). 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Mollica, F., Rajagopal, K. R., & Srinivasa, A. R.

citation count

  • 45

complete list of authors

  • Mollica, F||Rajagopal, KR||Srinivasa, AR

publication date

  • August 2001