Phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D signaling, transport, and metabolism in the endometria of cyclic ewes.
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BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests important roles for progesterone (P4) and interferon tau in the regulation of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D signaling in the uteri of pregnant sheep. However, the effects of P4 and estradiol (E2), with respect to the expression of their receptors PGR and ESR1, respectively, in uterine epithelia on mineral signaling during the estrous cycle has not been investigated. Estrous cycles of mature Suffolk ewes were synchronized, prostaglandin F2 was administered, and ewes were observed for estrus (designated as Day 0) in the presence of vasectomized rams. On Days 1, 9, or 14 of the estrous cycle, hysterectomies were performed. RESULTS: 25-hydroxyvitamin D was more abundant in plasma from ewes on Day 14 than Day 1 (P<0.05). Expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17), and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) mRNAs was greater in endometria on Day 9 compared to Days 1 and 14 (P<0.01). Similarly, expression of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 6 (TRPV6) mRNA was greater in endometria on Day 9 than Day 1 (P<0.05). ATPase plasma membrane Ca2+transporting 4 (ATP2B4) and S100 calcium binding protein G (S100G) mRNA expression was greater in endometria on Day 14 than on Days 1 and 9 (P<0.01). In contrast, endometrial expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA was lower on Days 9 and 14 than Day 1 (P<0.01). Expression of klotho (KL) (P<0.05) and cytochrome P450 family 24 subfamily A member 1 (CYP24) (P<0.01) mRNAs was lower on Day 14 than Days 1 and 9. ADAM17, FGF23, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, KL, and VDR proteins immunolocalized to the uterine myometrium, blood vessels, and uterine luminal (LE), superficial glandular (sGE), and glandular (GE) epithelia. S100A9 protein was weakly expressed in the uterine myometrium, LE, sGE, and GE. Immunoreactivity of CYP2R1 and KL proteins in uterine LE and sGE was less on Day 1 than on Days 9 and 14. In contrast, S100G protein was expressed exclusively by GE, and immunoreactive S100G protein was less on Day 9. S100A12 protein localized to stromal cells of the uterine stratum spongiosum and blood vessels, but not by uterine epithelial cells. CONCLUSION: Collectively, these results implicate E2, P4, and PGR in the regulation of phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D signaling in cyclic ewes.