Data integrity issues in pharmaceutical industry: Common observations, challenges and mitigations strategies. Academic Article uri icon


  • Data integrity (DI) reaffirms the pharmaceutical industry's commitment to manufacture drugs that are safe, effective and fulfil quality standards. At the same time, DI is a crucial tool for regulatory authorities to use in protecting public health. Recent FDA Form-483 observations and warning letters indicate that DI is the main issue the pharmaceutical industry is currently dealing with. Failure to comply with DI requirements may result in a high number of un-validated results, which may cause post-marketing issues and frequent product recalls. To address the underlying causes of DI problems, a comprehensive approach is necessary. The majority of DI issues are caused by poor quality culture, organizational or individual behaviour, leadership, processes, or technology. DI should be effectively integrated into the quality management system, and it should apply to both paper and electronic records. Employees should be trained on 21 CFR Part 11. Consistent review and audit are required to ensure that procedures are followed and audit trails are generated. Electronic systems, in addition to being an efficient solution (system integration, data verification at both input and output, security), offer advantages over traditional paper-based systems in terms of improved compliance with DI regulatory requirements. For example, many electronic system platforms provide enhanced security features and audit trail capabilities. Finally, management support for data governance is essential for successful implementation of DI. This article reviews commonly observed deviations by FDA pertaining to DI and discusses measures to be undertaken to avoid them.

published proceedings

  • Int J Pharm

author list (cited authors)

  • Charoo, N. A., Khan, M. A., & Rahman, Z.

citation count

  • 1

complete list of authors

  • Charoo, Naseem A||Khan, Mansoor A||Rahman, Ziyaur

publication date

  • January 2023