Three-dimensional printing of scaffolds for facial reconstruction Academic Article uri icon


  • AbstractThree-dimensional (3D) printing of scaffolds for tissue engineering applications has grown substantially in the past two decades. Unlike conventional autografts and allografts, 3D-printed scaffolds can satisfy the growing need for personalized bony reconstruction following massive craniofacial bone loss. Employing layer-by-layer manufacturing techniques, it is possible to produce patient-specific structures to rebuild complicated geometries for esthetic purposes and restore mechanical and respiratory functions. Here, we summarize the trends and current state-of-the-art studies in 3D-printing technologies for craniofacial bone reconstruction. We describe the design and development of the craniofacial scaffolds, including material choices, scaffold fabrication workflows, and the mechanical, structural, and biological considerations impacting scaffold application and function. Finally, we summarize the remaining hurdles and opportunities for growth to transition to the widespread clinical adoption of this technology. Graphical abstract

published proceedings

  • MRS Bulletin

author list (cited authors)

  • Zhou, Y., & Grayson, W.

complete list of authors

  • Zhou, Yuxiao||Grayson, Warren

publication date

  • January 2022