A process optimization framework for laser direct energy deposition: Densification, microstructure, and mechanical properties of an Fe-Cr alloy Academic Article uri icon


  • Direct Energy Deposition (DED) is a metal additive manufacturing (AM) technique with the ability to fabricate compositional gradients through in-situ alloying. To fabricate functional gradients, it is necessary to understand what process parameters are suitable for printing the materials in the gradient. This study proposes a framework to optimize several critical process parameters: laser power, scan speed, mass flow rate, hatch spacing, and layer height. The framework utilizes single laser scans and geometric criteria to propose a range of process parameters likely to result in high-density parts. The proposed framework is validated by printing Fe-9wt.%Cr as a surrogate for radiation damage-resistant steels. These steels are of interest for functionally graded plasma-facing components in fusion reactors. Using the framework, high-density Fe-9wt.%Cr samples were fabricated using a variety of process parameters. The mechanical properties and microstructure of as-printed Fe-9wt.%Cr are characterized using tensile testing, microscopy, and X-ray diffraction.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Whitt, A., Seede, R., Ye, J., Elverud, M., Vaughan, M., Elwany, A., Arroyave, R., & Karaman, I.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Whitt, Austin||Seede, Raiyan||Ye, Jiahui||Elverud, Michael||Vaughan, Matthew||Elwany, Alaa||Arroyave, Raymundo||Karaman, Ibrahim

publication date

  • January 2023