Film effectiveness over a flat surface with air and CO2 injection through compound angle holes using a transient liquid crystal image method Academic Article uri icon


  • This paper presents detailed film effectiveness distributions over a flat surface with one row of injection holes inclined streamwise at 35 deg for three blowing ratios (M = 0.5, 1.0, 2.0). Three compound angles of 0, 45, and 90 deg with air (D.R. = 0.98) and CO2 (D. R. = 1.46) as coolants are tested at an elevated free-stream turbulence condition (Tu 8.5 percent). A transient liquid crystal technique is used to measure local heat transfer coefficients and film effectiveness. Detailed film effectiveness results are presented near and around film injection holes. Compound angle injection provides higher film effectiveness than simple angle injection for both coolants. Higher density injectant produces higher effectiveness for simple injection. However, lower density coolant produces higher effectiveness for a large compound angle of 90 deg. The detailed film effectiveness obtained using the transient liquid crystal technique, particularly in the near-hole region, provided a better understanding of the film cooling process in gas turbine components.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Ekkad, S. V., Zapata, D., & Han, J. C.

citation count

  • 98

complete list of authors

  • Ekkad, SV||Zapata, D||Han, JC

publication date

  • July 1997