Comparison of experimental data with the numerical simulation of planar entry flow: Role of the constitutive equation
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The goal of this research was to determine whether there is any interaction between the type of constitutive equation used and the degree of mesh refinement, as well as how the type of constitutive equation might affect the convergence and quality of the solution, for a planar 4:1 contraction in the finite eiement method. Five constitutive equations were used in this work: the Phan‐Thien–Tanner (PTT), Johnson–Segalman (JS), White–Metzner (WM), Leonov‐like and upper convected Maxwell (UCM) models. A penalty Galerkin finite element technique was used to solve the system of non‐linear differential equations. The constitutive equations were fitted to the steady shear viscosity and normal stress data for a polystyrene melt. In general it was found that the convergence limit based on the Deborah number De and the Weissenberg number We varied from model to model and from mesh to mesh. From a practical point of view it was observed that the wall shear stress in the downstream region should also be indicated at the point where convergence is lost, since this parameter reflects the throughput conditions. Because of the dependence of convergence on the combination of mesh size and constitutive equation, predictions of the computations were compared with birefringence data obtained for the same polystyrene melt flowing through a 4:1 planar contraction. Refinement in the mesh led to better agreement between the predictions using the PTT model and flow birefringence, but the oscillations became worse in the corner region as the mesh was further refined, eventually leading to the loss of convergence of the numerical algorithm. In comparing results using different models at the same wall shear stress conditions and on the same mesh, it was found that the PTT model gave less overshoot of the stresses at the re‐entrant corner. Away from the corner there were very small differences between the quality of the solutions obtained using different models. All the models predicted solutions with oscillations. However, the values of the solutions oscillated around the experimental birefringence data, even when the numerical algorithm would not converge. Whereas the stresses are predicted to oscillate, the streamlines and velocity field remained smooth. Predictions for the existence of vortices as well as for the entrance pressure loss (ΔPent) varied from model to model. The UCM and WM models predicted negative values for ΔPent. Copyright © 1990 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
author list (cited authors)
Gotsis, A. D., Baird, D. G., & Reddy, J. N.