Clinical ophthalmic parameters of the Quaker parrot (Myiopsitta monachus). Academic Article uri icon


  • PURPOSE: Ophthalmic diagnosis in many avian species remains hindered by a lack of normative values. This study aimed to establish normal ophthalmic parameters for select diagnostic tests in clinically normal Quaker parrots. METHODS: Ninety-six captive Quaker parrots aged 8-18years underwent ophthalmic examination to include assessment of neuro-ophthalmic reflexes, phenol red thread test, rebound tonometry, fluorescein staining, palpebral fissure length measurements, slit lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, and ocular ultrasound biometry. RESULTS: Menace response, dazzle reflex, and direct pupillary light reflex were present for all Quaker parrots. Tear production (meanSD) was 13.34.0mm/15s and intraocular pressure (IOP, meanSD) was 10.61.4 and 6.01.3mmHg in the D and P rebound tonometer calibration settings, respectively. For IOP measurement, D and P calibration settings were not interchangeable, with the lesser variation of the D setting preferred in the absence of a gold standard. Ultrasound measurement of the anterior chamber depth increased with age and males had longer axial globe and vitreous lengths. Incidental adnexal and ocular lesions, identified in 36/96 (37.5%) of Quaker parrots, did not statistically affect the created reference data. CONCLUSIONS: This work provides reference values and clinical findings to assist with monitoring the health of wild populations and maintaining the health of captive Quaker parrots.

published proceedings

  • Vet Ophthalmol

author list (cited authors)

  • Halsmer, E. L., Heatley, J. J., & Scott, E. M.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Halsmer, Emily L||Heatley, Jennifer Jill||Scott, Erin M

publication date

  • September 2023