Nonlinear analysis of microstructure-dependent functionally graded piezoelectric material actuators
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In the present work, a nonlinear thermo-electro-mechanical response of functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) actuators is investigated. The theoretical formulation is based on the Timoshenko beam theory with the von Krmn nonlinearity (in the form of midplane stretching), and a microstructural length scale is incorporated by means of the modified couple stress theory. A power-law distribution of thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties through beam thickness (or height) is assumed. The governing equations are derived using the principle of virtual displacements. A displacement finite element model of the theory is developed, and the resulting system of nonlinear algebraic equations is solved with the help of Newton's iteration method. Numerical results are presented for transverse deflection as a function of load parameters and out-of-plane boundary conditions. The parametric effects of microstructural length scale parameter, power-law index of the material distribution across the thickness, boundary conditions, beam geometry, and applied actuator voltage on the beam response are investigated through various numerical examples. The results reveal the existence of bifurcation (or critical states) for certain types of in-plane loads. For other load types, including out-of-plane loads, the beam undergoes a unique and stable deflection path that does not contain any critical point. 2013 Elsevier Ltd.