Discoloration Improvement by Mechanically-Milled Binary Oxides as Radiopacifier for Mineral Trioxide Aggregates. Academic Article uri icon


  • Mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA) have been widely used in endodontic treatments, but after some time, patients suffer tooth discoloration due to the use of bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) as a radiopacifier. Replacement of Bi2O3 with high energy ball-milled single (zirconia ZrO2; hafnia, HfO2; or tantalum pentoxide, Ta2O5) or binary oxide powder was attempted, and corresponding discoloration improvement was investigated in the present study. Bi2O3-free MTA is expected to exhibit superior discoloration. The radiopacity, diametral tensile strength, and discoloration of MTA-like cements prepared from the as-milled powder were investigated. Experimental results showed that MTA-like cements prepared using Ta2O5 exhibited a slightly higher radiopacity than that of HfO2 but had a much higher radiopacity than ZrO2. Milling treatment (30 min to 3 h) did not affect the radiopacities significantly. These MTA-like cements exhibited superior color stability (all measured E00 < 1.0) without any perceptible differences after UV irradiation. MTA-like cements prepared using ZrO2 exhibited the best color stability but the lowest radiopacity, which can be improved by introducing binary oxide. Among the investigated samples, MTA-like cement using (ZrO2)50(Ta2O5)50 exhibited excellent color stability and the best overall performance with a radiopacity of 3.25 mmAl and a diametral tensile strength of 4.39 MPa.

published proceedings

  • Materials (Basel)

author list (cited authors)

  • Lin, H., Wang, L., Chen, M., Chang, P., Lin, P., Fang, A., ... Lin, C.

citation count

  • 0

publication date

  • November 2022