Advances in in-vitro bioequivalence testing methods for complex ophthalmic generic products. Academic Article uri icon


  • The United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) demands that the generic industry prove topical ocular products' pharmaceutical and bioequivalence (BE). In contrast to generic oral drugs, topical ocular product BE testing has proved difficult. New generic versions are compared to an authorized drug product known as a Reference Listed Drug (RLD) to demonstrate their bioequivalence. If the excellent in-vitro results may support the presumption of equivalence in-vivo performance and the only clinically significant difference between the generic and RLD is in its physicochemical qualities and drug release rate, then in-vivo BE studies may be waived. Proving BE through dissolution tests is a golden standard for most conventional dosage forms. However, due to the limited number of biorelevant in-vitro drug release testing (IVRT) approaches capable of differentiating their performance based on product quality and physicochemical properties, the development of generic ophthalmic products has been slow and time-consuming. Often, BE of topical ophthalmic formulations cannot be proved using a single in-vitro test; therefore, an elaborated discussion on various IVRT methods performed to demonstrate bioequivalence of complex generis like ophthalmic emulsions, suspensions, ointments, and gels is necessary. This manuscript aims to review the status of biowaiver criteria for complex ophthalmic products concerning the product-specific FDA guidance to the generic industry.

published proceedings

  • Int J Pharm

author list (cited authors)

  • Renukuntla, J., Palakurthi, S. S., Bolla, P. K., Clark, B. A., Boddu, S., Manda, P., ... Palakurthi, S.

citation count

  • 1

complete list of authors

  • Renukuntla, Jwala||Palakurthi, Sushesh Srivatsa||Bolla, Pradeep Kumar||Clark, Bradley A||Boddu, Sai HS||Manda, Prashanth||Sockwell, Samuel||Charbe, Nitin B||Palakurthi, Srinath

publication date

  • January 2022