A nonlocal Timoshenko curved beam model is developed using a modified couple stress theory and Hamilton's principle. The model contains a material length scale parameter that can capture the size effect, unlike the classical Timoshenko beam theory. Both bending and axial deformations are considered, and the Poisson effect is incorporated in the model. The newly developed nonlocal model recovers the classical model when the material length scale parameter and Poisson's ratio are both taken to be zero and the straight beam model when the radius of curvature is set to infinity. In addition, the nonlocal BernoulliEuler curved beam model can be realized when the normal cross-section assumption is restated. To illustrate the new model, the static bending and free vibration problems of a simply supported curved beam are solved by directly applying the formulas derived. The numerical results for the static bending problem reveal that both the deflection and rotation of the simply supported beam predicted by the new model are smaller than those predicted by the classical Timoshenko curved beam model. Also, the differences in both the deflection and rotation predicted by the current and classical Timoshenko model are very large when the beam thickness is small, but they diminish with the increase of the beam height. Similar trends are observed for the free vibration problem, where it is shown that the natural frequency predicted by the nonlocal model is higher than that by the classical model, and the difference between them is significantly large only for very thin beams. These predicted trends of the size effect at the micron scale agree with those observed experimentally.