Unzipping flood vulnerability and functionality loss: tale of struggle for existence of riparian buildings Academic Article uri icon


  • AbstractFloods pose significant risk to riparian buildings as evidenced during many historical events. Although structural resilience to tsunami flooding is well studied in the literature, high-velocity and debris-laden floods in steep terrains are not considered adequately so far. Historical floods in steep terrains necessitate the need for flood vulnerability analysis of buildings. To this end, we report vulnerability of riparian-reinforced concrete buildings using forensic damage interpretations and empirical/analytical vulnerability analyses. Furthermore, we propose the concept and implications of functionality loss due to flooding in residential reinforced concrete (RC) buildings using empirical data. Fragility functions using inundation depth and momentum flux are presented for RC buildings considering a recent flooding event in Nepal. The results show that flow velocity and sediment load, rather than hydrostatic load, govern the damages in riparian RC buildings. However, at larger inundation depth, hydrostatic force alone may collapse some of the RC buildings.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Gautam, D., Adhikari, R., Gautam, S., Pandey, V. P., Thapa, B. R., Lamichhane, S., ... Rupakhety, R.

complete list of authors

  • Gautam, Dipendra||Adhikari, Rabindra||Gautam, Suraj||Pandey, Vishnu Prasad||Thapa, Bhesh Raj||Lamichhane, Suraj||Talchabhadel, Rocky||Thapa, Saraswati||Niraula, Sunil||Aryal, Komal Raj||Lamsal, Pravin||Bastola, Subash||Sah, Sanjay Kumar||Subedi, Shanti Kala||Puri, Bijaya||Kandel, Bidur||Sapkota, Pratap||Rupakhety, Rajesh

publication date

  • January 2022