The genome of the domesticated apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). Academic Article uri icon


  • We report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the domesticated apple (Malus domestica). We show that a relatively recent (>50 million years ago) genome-wide duplication (GWD) has resulted in the transition from nine ancestral chromosomes to 17 chromosomes in the Pyreae. Traces of older GWDs partly support the monophyly of the ancestral paleohexaploidy of eudicots. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Pyreae and the genus Malus, relative to major Rosaceae taxa, identified the progenitor of the cultivated apple as M. sieversii. Expansion of gene families reported to be involved in fruit development may explain formation of the pome, a Pyreae-specific false fruit that develops by proliferation of the basal part of the sepals, the receptacle. In apple, a subclade of MADS-box genes, normally involved in flower and fruit development, is expanded to include 15 members, as are other gene families involved in Rosaceae-specific metabolism, such as transport and assimilation of sorbitol.

published proceedings

  • Nat Genet

altmetric score

  • 82.246

author list (cited authors)

  • Velasco, R., Zharkikh, A., Affourtit, J., Dhingra, A., Cestaro, A., Kalyanaraman, A., ... Viola, R.

citation count

  • 1705

complete list of authors

  • Velasco, Riccardo||Zharkikh, Andrey||Affourtit, Jason||Dhingra, Amit||Cestaro, Alessandro||Kalyanaraman, Ananth||Fontana, Paolo||Bhatnagar, Satish K||Troggio, Michela||Pruss, Dmitry||Salvi, Silvio||Pindo, Massimo||Baldi, Paolo||Castelletti, Sara||Cavaiuolo, Marina||Coppola, Giuseppina||Costa, Fabrizio||Cova, Valentina||Dal Ri, Antonio||Goremykin, Vadim||Komjanc, Matteo||Longhi, Sara||Magnago, Pierluigi||Malacarne, Giulia||Malnoy, Mickael||Micheletti, Diego||Moretto, Marco||Perazzolli, Michele||Si-Ammour, Azeddine||Vezzulli, Silvia||Zini, Elena||Eldredge, Glenn||Fitzgerald, Lisa M||Gutin, Natalia||Lanchbury, Jerry||Macalma, Teresita||Mitchell, Jeff T||Reid, Julia||Wardell, Bryan||Kodira, Chinnappa||Chen, Zhoutao||Desany, Brian||Niazi, Faheem||Palmer, Melinda||Koepke, Tyson||Jiwan, Derick||Schaeffer, Scott||Krishnan, Vandhana||Wu, Changjun||Chu, Vu T||King, Stephen T||Vick, Jessica||Tao, Quanzhou||Mraz, Amy||Stormo, Aimee||Stormo, Keith||Bogden, Robert||Ederle, Davide||Stella, Alessandra||Vecchietti, Alberto||Kater, Martin M||Masiero, Simona||Lasserre, Pauline||Lespinasse, Yves||Allan, Andrew C||Bus, Vincent||ChagnĂ©, David||Crowhurst, Ross N||Gleave, Andrew P||Lavezzo, Enrico||Fawcett, Jeffrey A||Proost, Sebastian||RouzĂ©, Pierre||Sterck, Lieven||Toppo, Stefano||Lazzari, Barbara||Hellens, Roger P||Durel, Charles-Eric||Gutin, Alexander||Bumgarner, Roger E||Gardiner, Susan E||Skolnick, Mark||Egholm, Michael||Van de Peer, Yves||Salamini, Francesco||Viola, Roberto

publication date

  • January 2010