The expectation-maximization algorithm for symbol unsynchronized sequence detection
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The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for maximizing likelihood functions, combined with the Viterbi algorithm, is applied to the problem of sequence detection when symbol timing information is not present. Although the EM algorithm is noncausal, results obtained using the algorithm on the problem of nonsynchronized sequence detection indicate that it converges most of the time in three iterations, making it both of theoretical as well as practical interest. Finally, a practical algorithm based on the EM algorithm is introduced, which reduces the computational burden and improves performance by making use of timing estimates in previous observation windows. © 1991 IEEE
author list (cited authors)
Georghiades, C. N., & Snyder, D. L.