Multifaceted entrancing role of glucose and its analogue, 2-deoxy-D-glucose in cancer cell proliferation, inflammation, and virus infection.
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Chronic exposure to high glucose inside the human body helps in the progression of cancer by activating various signaling pathways including PI3K, Akt, mTOR, Ras, Raf, MAPK, and PKC. Hyperglycemia induces ROS and AGE production and decreases the functional activities of the cellular antioxidant system. By downregulating the prolyl hydroxylase, it stabilizes HIF- leading to EMT-induced cancer progression and inhibition of apoptosis. High glucose level increases inflammation by creating a pro-inflammatory environment through the production of certain pro-inflammatory mediators (cytokines, chemokines, leukotrienes), and by influencing the recruitment of immune cells, leukocytes in the inflamed region. High glucose impairs the immune response and dysregulates ROS formation through the alteration in ETC and glutaminolysis which makes hyperglycemic patients more susceptible to viral infection. 2-DG is a modified form of D-glucose, that shows anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-viral effects. It enters the cells through GLUT transporters and is converted into 2-deoxy-D-glucose-6-phosphate with the help of hexokinase. It inhibits the glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and the pentose phosphate pathway leading to ATP depletion. By downregulating glucose uptake and energy (ATP) production it halts various pathways responsible for cancer progression. It promotes the formation of anti-inflammatory mediators, and macrophage polarization, and also modulates immune function, which decreases inflammation. 2-DG inhibits PI3K/Akt/mTOR and upregulates the AMPK pathway, causing activation of the SIRT-4 gene that reduces lipogenesis, glucose uptake, nucleotide formation, and alters viral replication thus reducing the chances of infection.
author list (cited authors)
Dey, S., Murmu, N., Mondal, T., Saha, I., Chatterjee, S., Manna, R., ... Giri, B.
complete list of authors
Dey, Sananda||Murmu, Nensina||Mondal, Tanushree||Saha, Ishita||Chatterjee, Soumendranath||Manna, Rahul||Haldar, Subhash||Dash, Sandeep K||Sarkar, Tapasree Roy||Giri, Biplab