We report the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)--Fe2O3 nanocomposite and its application to remove and recover dissolved oil from a high-salinity oilwater emulsion in batch and column/breakthrough setups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption characterized the synthesized nanocomposites structure, morphology, and surface properties. Both batch and continuous breakthrough adsorption studies were investigated. The effect of the adsorption parameters on the adsorption capacity and removal efficiency was analyzed. The rGO-Fe2O3 nanocomposite (rGO-Fe2O3-NC) demonstrated a superior adsorption capacity, both when measured experimentally (1213 mg/g) and predicted using the Freundlich isotherm (1301 mg/g). The adsorption process followed pseudo-second-order kinetic, and the rGO-Fe2O3-NC exhibited a very rapid removal, with more than 60% of oil being removed within 10 min. Breakthrough confirmed the exceptional removal capacities with good regeneration and cycling ability under a short contact time. Moreover, the adsorption capacity was enhanced with an emulsion salinity of up to 100,000 ppm, confirming the suitability for high-salinity wastewater.