Low Frequency of Horizontal and Vertical Transmission of Cucurbit Leaf Crumple Virus in Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius.
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Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), a bipartite begomovirus, is transmitted by whiteflies in a persistent and circulative manner. Like other begomoviruses, CuLCrV transmission via feeding is well understood; however, whether and how CuLCrV is transmitted by horizontal and vertical modes in its vector, Bemisia tabaci, remains unexplored. We studied transovarial and mating transmission of CuLCrV, and comparatively analyzed virus accumulation in whiteflies through feeding and nonfeeding modes. Furthermore, we quantified CuLCrV DNA A accumulation at different time points to determine whether this virus propagates in whiteflies. CuLCrV DNA A was transmitted vertically and horizontally by B. tabaci, with low frequency in each case. Transovarial transmission of CuLCrV DNA A was only 3.93% in nymphs and 3.09% in adults. Similarly, only a single viruliferous male was able to transmit CuLCrV DNA A to its nonviruliferous female counterparts via mating. In contrast, viruliferous females were unable to transmit CuLCrV DNA A to nonviruliferous males. Additionally, the recipient adults that presumably acquired CuLCrV transovarially and via mating were not able to transmit the virus to squash plants. We further report that the CuLCrV DNA A viral copy numbers were significantly lower in nonfeeding modes of transmission than in feeding ones. The viral copy numbers significantly decreased at succeeding time points throughout adulthood, suggesting no CuLCrV propagation in B. tabaci. Altogether, the low frequency of nonfeeding transmission, reduced virus accumulation in whiteflies, and absence of plant infectivity through nonfeeding transmission suggest that transovarial and mating CuLCrV transmission might not substantially contribute to CuLCrV epidemics.
author list (cited authors)
Gadhave, K. R., Gautam, S., Dutta, B., Coolong, T., Adkins, S., & Srinivasan, R.
complete list of authors
Gadhave, Kiran R||Gautam, Saurabh||Dutta, Bhabesh||Coolong, Tim||Adkins, Scott||Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu