Synthesis of water networks considering the sustainability of the surrounding watershed
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This paper presents a new mathematical programming model for the optimal synthesis of recycle and reuse networks considering simultaneously the integration of the water network system and the surrounding watershed to satisfy process and environmental constraints. The model considers the optimal location of the new industrial facility to integrate its wastewater discharge to the environment with the surrounding watershed through a disjunctive formulation. The pollutants discharged for the new plant are tracked simultaneously with the other discharges to the watershed (i.e., residential, sanitary, industrial and extractions), and the natural phenomena that affect the composition of the watershed (i.e., evaporation, filtration, etc.), in addition to the chemical reactions that are carried out in the rivers. The objective function consists in minimizing the total annual cost that is constituted by the installation of the new plant cost (including the transportation for raw materials, products and services, as well as the land cost), the wastewater treatment costs (including the piping cost) and the fresh sources cost. Two example problems were used to show the applicability of the proposed methodology. 2011 Elsevier Ltd.