The 3D Printing of Biomass-Fungi Composites: Effects of Waiting Time after Mixture Preparation on Mechanical Properties, Rheological Properties, Minimum Extrusion Pressure, and Print Quality of the Prepared Mixture Academic Article uri icon


  • Biomassfungi composites, an emerging class of sustainable materials, have potential applications in the construction and packaging industries. Molding-based manufacturing methods are typically employed to make products from these composites. Recently, a 3D printing-based method was developed for biomassfungi composites to eliminate the need for making molds and to facilitate customized product design compared with manufacturing methods based on molding and hot-pressing. This method has six stages: biomassfungi material preparation; primary colonization; mixture preparation; printing; secondary colonization; and drying. This paper reports a study about the effects of waiting time between the mixture preparation and 3D printing using biomassfungi composites. As the waiting time increased from 0.25 to 3 h, the hardness and compressibility of the prepared mixture increased. As the waiting time increased from 0.25 to 8 h, the shear viscosity showed a decreasing trend; the yield stress of the prepared mixture increased at the beginning, then significantly decreased until the waiting time reached 3 h, and then did not significantly vary after 3 h. As the waiting time increased, the storage modulus and loss modulus decreased, the loss tangent delta increased, and the minimum required printing pressure for continuous extrusion during extrusion-based 3D printing increased. The print quality (in terms of layer-height shrinkage and filament-width uniformity) was reasonably good when the waiting time did not exceed 4.5 h.

published proceedings


altmetric score

  • 1.35

author list (cited authors)

  • Rahman, A. M., Bhardwaj, A., Pei, Z., Ufodike, C., & Castell-Perez, E.

citation count

  • 3

complete list of authors

  • Rahman, Al Mazedur||Bhardwaj, Abhinav||Pei, Zhijian||Ufodike, Chukwuzubelu||Castell-Perez, Elena

publication date

  • August 2022