A theoretical investigation of the effect of Ga alloying on thermodynamic stability, electronic-structure, and oxidation resistance of Ti2AlC MAX phase. Academic Article uri icon


  • We present a systematic investigation of thermodynamic stability, phase-reaction, and chemical activity of Al containing disordered Ti2(Al-Ga)C MAX phases using machine-learning driven high-throughput framework to understand the oxidation resistance behavior with increasing temperature and exposure to static oxygen. The A-site (at Al) disordering in Ti2AlC MAX (M=Ti, A=Al, X=C)with Ga shows significant change in the chemical activity of Al with increasing temperature and exposure to static oxygen, which is expected to enable surface segregation of Al, thereby, the formation of Al2O3 and improved oxidation resistance. We performed in-depth convex hull analysis of ternary Ti-Al-C, Ti-Ga-C, and Ti-Al-Ga-C based MAX phase, and provide detailed contribution arising from electronic, chemical and vibrational entropies. The thermodynamic analysis shows change in the Gibbs formation enthalpy (Gform) at higher temperatures, which implies an interplay of temperature-dependent enthalpy and entropic contributions in oxidation resistance Ga doped Ti2AlC MAX phases. A detailed electronic structure and chemical bonding analysis using crystal orbital Hamilton population method reveal the origin of change in phases stability and in oxidation resistance in disorder Ti2(Al1-xGax)C MAX phases. Our electronic structure analysis correlate well with the change in oxidation resistance of Ga doped MAX phases. We believe our study provides a useful guideline to understand to role of alloying on electronic, thermodynamic, and oxidation related mechanisms of bulk MAX phases, which can work as a precursor to understand oxidation behavior of two-dimensional MAX phases, i.e., MXenes (transition metal carbides, carbonitrides and nitrides).

published proceedings

  • Sci Rep

altmetric score

  • 1

author list (cited authors)

  • Sauceda, D., Singh, P., & Arroyave, R.

citation count

  • 1

complete list of authors

  • Sauceda, Daniel||Singh, Prashant||Arroyave, Raymundo

publication date

  • January 2022