Hetero-Multivalent Targeted Liposomal Drug Delivery to Treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections.
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading nosocomial and community-acquired pathogen causing a plethora of acute and chronic infections. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has designated multidrug-resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa as a serious threat. A novel delivery vehicle capable of specifically targeting P. aeruginosa, and encapsulating antimicrobials, may address the challenges associated with these infections. We have developed hetero-multivalent targeted liposomes functionalized with host cell glycans to increase the delivery of antibiotics to the site of infection. Previously, we have demonstrated that compared with monovalent liposomes, these hetero-multivalent liposomes bind with higher affinity to P. aeruginosa. Here, compared with nontargeted liposomes, we have shown that greater numbers of targeted liposomes are found in the circulation, as well as at the site of P. aeruginosa (PAO1) infection in the thighs of CD-1 mice. No significant difference was found in the uptake of targeted, nontargeted, and PEGylated liposomes by J774.A1 macrophages. Ciprofloxacin-loaded liposomes were formulated and characterized for size, encapsulation, loading, and drug release. In vitro antimicrobial efficacy was assessed using CLSI broth microdilution assays and time-kill kinetics. Lastly, PAO1-inoculated mice treated with ciprofloxacin-loaded, hetero-multivalent targeted liposomes survived longer than mice treated with ciprofloxacin-loaded, monovalent targeted, or nontargeted liposomes and free ciprofloxacin. Thus, liposomes functionalized with host cell glycans target P. aeruginosa resulting in increased retention of the liposomes in the circulation, accumulation at the site of infection, and increased survival time in a mouse surgical site infection model. Consequently, this formulation strategy may improve outcomes in patients infected with P. aeruginosa.