A General Model for Pointing Error of High Frequency Directional Antennas
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This paper focuses on providing an analytical framework for the quantification and evaluation of the pointing error for a general case at high-frequency millimeter wave (mmWave) and terahertz (THz) communication links. For this aim, we first derive the the probability density function (PDF) and cumulative distribution functions (CDF) of the pointing error between an unstable transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx), that have different antenna patterns and for which the vibrations are not similar in the Yaw and Pitch directions. The special case where the Tx and Rx are both equipped with uniform linear array antenna is also investigated. In addition, using $alpha-mu$ distribution, which is a valid model for small-scale fading of mmWave/THz links, the end-to-end PDF and CDF of the considered channel is derived for all the considered cases. Finally, by employing Monte-Carlo simulations, the accuracy of the analytical expressions is verified and the performance of the system is studied.