Assessment of Spatio-Temporal Kinematic Phenomena Observed along the Boundary of Triaxial Sand Specimens Academic Article uri icon


  • This paper follows up on a reference paper that inspired MDPIs topic Stochastic Geomechanics: From Experimentation to Forward Modeling, in which global and local deformation effects on sand specimens were fully described from high-resolution boundary displacement fields. This paper is supported by that studys experimental database, which is open to the scientific community for further study. This paper focuses on the analysis of this experimental study to investigate strain localization effects on a subset of tests included in this database. Strain localization is defined here as associated with the non-homogeneous deformation process occurring in elastoplastic materials, including sands. Many experimental and numerical studies have been conducted during the last two decades to explore the characteristics of localization effects on sand, and to determine how these contribute to the failure mechanisms of specific sands. Under a triaxial compression condition, localization effects have been studied mainly with regard to particle kinematics and translational strain of the specimens displacement fields. However, to the best of the authors knowledge, there has been no 3D experimental kinematic analysis performed on sands to study the localization phenomena that can directly relate the impact of a specimens initial and boundary conditions to a failure mechanism during a triaxial test. In this paper, we introduce a full set of 3D kinematic operators under cylindrical coordinates to assess the boundary localization effects of deforming sand specimens under triaxial loading conditions. Furthermore, a set of experiments were carried out under varying experimental conditions to study the impact of variability in these localization effects. Results show that patterns of kinematic effects are quantifiable and can be used to assess likely failure-influencing factors, such as confining pressure, initial density, sample geometry, and sample heterogeneity, in the development of specific failure mechanisms. Spatio-temporal interdependencies between localization effects, such as the interactions between shear, expansion, and compaction bands observed during the specimens shearing process, were also studied. We therefore hypothesize that the proposed framework will serve as the basis for quantifying the uncertainty associated with the development of localization effects over the boundary of sand-deforming specimens.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Zhu, Y., & Medina-Cetina, Z.

citation count

  • 2

complete list of authors

  • Zhu, Yichuan||Medina-Cetina, Zenon

publication date

  • January 2022