A methodology to derive the critical demand density for designing and operating feeder transit services Academic Article uri icon


  • Feeder lines are one of the most often used types of flexible transit services connecting a service area to a major transit network through a transfer point. They often switch operations between a demand responsive and a fixed-route policy. In designing and running such systems, the identification of the condition justifying the operating switch is often hard to properly evaluate. In this paper, we propose an analytical model and solution of the problem to assist decision makers and operators in their choice. By employing continuous approximations, we derive handy but powerful closed-form expressions to estimate the critical demand densities, representing the switching point between the competing operating policies. Based on the results of one-vehicle and two-vehicle operations for various scenarios, in comparison to values generated from simulation, we verify the validity of our analytical modeling approach. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Quadrifoglio, L., & Li, X.

citation count

  • 118

complete list of authors

  • Quadrifoglio, Luca||Li, Xiugang

publication date

  • January 2009