Analysis of Clock Offset and Skew Estimation in Timing-sync Protocol for Sensor Networks
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Recently, a few protocols for synchronizing the nodes of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to a common time frame have been proposed with the goal of maximizing the accuracy and minimizing the power utilization. Thus far, the performance of the existing protocols for time synchronization is assessed only through computer simulations and experiments without using any rigorous analytical metrics. The goal of this paper is to fill up this gap by deriving the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for the clock offset in one of the most popular synchronization algorithms, namely Timing-sync Protocol for Sensor Networks (TPSN), assuming commonly used exponential and Gaussian delay models, respectively. Furthermore, this paper proposes novel and practical clock skew estimators requiring no prior information of the fixed portion of delays, which makes the TPSN algorithm very suitable to synchronization in light of its power efficiency constraint. 2006 IEEE.