Novel clock phase offset and skew estimation using two-way timing message exchanges for wireless sensor networks
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Recently, a few efficient timing synchronization protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been proposed with the goal of maximizing the accuracy and minimizing the power utilization. This paper proposes novel clock skew estimators assuming different delay environments to achieve energy-efficient network-wide synchronization for WSNs. The proposed clock skew correction mechanism significantly increases the re-synchronization period, which is a critical factor in reducing the overall power consumption. The proposed synchronization scheme can be applied to the conventional protocols without additional overheads. Moreover, this paper derives the Cramer-Rao lower bounds and the maximum likelihood estimators under different delay models and assumptions. These analytical metrics serves as good benchmarks for the thus far reported experimental results. 2007 IEEE.