Comparison of Amantadine, Modafinil, and Standard of Care in the Acute Treatment of Disorders of Consciousness After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury. Academic Article uri icon


  • OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Many patients who experience severe TBI have persistent disorders of consciousness. Amantadine and modafinil are used for some neurological disorders; however, a comparison of the 2 medications in TBI has not been reported. This study compared the effectiveness of amantadine, modafinil, and standard of care (SOC) on disorders of consciousness after TBI. METHODS: All adult TBI patients admitted between January 1, 2017, and September 31, 2020 who received amantadine, modafinil, or SOC treatments were screened. Data collection included: demographics, change in Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), location of hemorrhage, medication duration, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, adverse drug reactions, and concomitant sedative medications. Patients in the amantadine and modafinil groups were matched 1:2 with patients who received SOC therapies. The primary outcome was change in GCS 3 from baseline to discharge. RESULTS: A total of 142 patients met inclusion criteria. Medications were initiated a median of 8 days from admission. Patients in the SOC group experienced a greater improvement in GCS and shorter hospital length of stay compared with amantadine. A change in GCS 3 from medication initiation to hospital discharge occurred in 46.5% of amantadine patients and 53.8% of modafinil patients. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, TBI patients did not benefit from amantadine or modafinil compared with SOC therapies, and no differences were found between medication groups. Further studies are warranted to determine whether the addition of amantadine or modafinil in the weeks after TBI provides benefit.

published proceedings

  • Clin Neuropharmacol

author list (cited authors)

  • Hintze, T. D., Small, C. E., Montgomery, J., Reveles, K. R., Hafeez, S., & Barthol, C. A.

citation count

  • 5

complete list of authors

  • Hintze, Trager D||Small, Clay E||Montgomery, Josephine||Reveles, Kelly R||Hafeez, Shaheryar||Barthol, Colleen A

publication date

  • January 2022