Impact of concentrations of camphor on the in vitro mixed ruminal microorganism fermentation from goats selected for consumption of low and high levels of Juniperus spp.-2.
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The microbial population in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminant animals aids in the utilization of forages with high levels of secondary plant compounds. Two divergent bloodlines of meat goats have been selected by screening fecal samples with near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy to assess the goat's consumption of high or low levels of Juniperus sp. leaves containing several monoterpenes, including camphor. The mechanism by which these goats can consume greater concentrations of Juniperus spp. leaves than their counterparts is unclear, and therefore, this study was designed to determine if differences existed between the ruminal microbial populations of the low and high juniper-consuming bloodlines (LJC vs. HJC) by analyzing their ruminal microbiota and fermentation end products. In the present study, concentrations (0.00, 0.5, 0.99, 1.97, or 5.91 mM) of camphor were added to mixed ruminal microorganism fermentation. Five LJC and five HJC goats were fed a juniper-free diet (n = 10), and five LJC and five HJC goats (n = 10) were fed a diet that contained 30% fresh Juniperus ashei leaves for 21 d prior to ruminal fluid collection. In vitro fermentations used LJC and HJC, ruminal fluid inoculum added (33% v/v) to anoxic media in sealed Balch tubes. Camphor increased (P < 0.05) total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations for all but one experimental group. Between the main dietary and bloodline goat effects, the diet was significant for all SCFA results except butyrate. In contrast, bloodline was only significant for acetate and butyrate molar proportions. Rumen fluid from juniper-free-fed goats exhibited greater concentrations of Ruminococcaceae, whereas juniper-fed goats contained more Coriobacteriaceae. Results demonstrated that mixed ruminal microorganisms fermentations from HJC goats did not produce greater concentrations of SCFAs or have the ability to degrade camphor at a higher rate than did that from LJC goats. Results suggest that camphor tolerance from J. ashei, was related to hepatic catabolic mechanisms instead of ruminal microbial degradation; however, further in vivo work is warranted.