History of Herbicide-Resistant Traits in Cotton in the U.S. and the Importance of Integrated Weed Management for Technology Stewardship. Academic Article uri icon


  • This paper reviews the history of herbicide-resistant (HR) traits in U.S. cotton since the beginning, highlighting the shortcomings of each trait over time that has led to the development of their successor and emphasizing the importance of integrated weed management (IWM) going forward to ensure their long-term sustainability. Introduction of glyphosate-resistant cropping systems has allowed for expansion of no-till systems more reliant on herbicides, favored less diverse crop rotations, and heavily relied on a single herbicide mode of action (MOA). With repeated applications of glyphosate over the years, biotypes of glyphosate-resistant (GR) A. palmeri and other weeds became economically damaging pests in cotton production systems throughout the U.S. Moreover, the reported cases of weeds resistant to different MOA across various parts of the United States has increased. The dicamba- (XtendFlex) and 2,4-D-resistant (Enlist) cotton traits (with stacks of glyphosate and glufosinate resistance) were introduced and have been highly adopted in the U.S. to manage HR weeds. Given the current rate of novel herbicide MOA discovery and increase in new HR weed cases, the future of sustainable weed management relies on an integrated approach that includes non-herbicidal methods with herbicides to ensure long-term success.

published proceedings

  • Plants (Basel)

altmetric score

  • 2.95

author list (cited authors)

  • Vulchi, R., Bagavathiannan, M., & Nolte, S. A.

citation count

  • 3

complete list of authors

  • Vulchi, Rohith||Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar||Nolte, Scott A

publication date

  • April 2022


published in