Biomedical applications of three-dimensional bioprinted craniofacial tissue engineering.
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Anatomical complications of the craniofacial regions often present considerable challenges to the surgical repair or replacement of the damaged tissues. Surgical repair has its own set of limitations, including scarcity of the donor tissues, immune rejection, use of immune suppressors followed by the surgery, and restriction in restoring the natural aesthetic appeal. Rapid advancement in the field of biomaterials, cell biology, and engineering has helped scientists to create cellularized skeletal muscle-like structures. However, the existing method still has limitations in building large, highly vascular tissue with clinical application. With the advance in the three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technique, scientists and clinicians now can produce the functional implants of skeletal muscles and bones that are more patient-specific with the perfect match to the architecture of their craniofacial defects. Craniofacial tissue regeneration using 3D bioprinting can manage and eliminate the restrictions of the surgical transplant from the donor site. The concept of creating the new functional tissue, exactly mimicking the anatomical and physiological function of the damaged tissue, looks highly attractive. This is crucial to reduce the donor site morbidity and retain the esthetics. 3D bioprinting can integrate all three essential components of tissue engineering, that is, rehabilitation, reconstruction, and regeneration of the lost craniofacial tissues. Such integration essentially helps to develop the patient-specific treatment plans and damage site-driven creation of the functional implants for the craniofacial defects. This article is the bird's eye view on the latest development and application of 3D bioprinting in the regeneration of the skeletal muscle tissues and their application in restoring the functional abilities of the damaged craniofacial tissue. We also discussed current challenges in craniofacial bone vascularization and gave our view on the future direction, including establishing the interactions between tissue-engineered skeletal muscle and the peripheral nervous system.
author list (cited authors)
Charbe, N. B., Tambuwala, M., Palakurthi, S. S., Warokar, A., Hromi-Jahjefendi, A., Bakshi, H., ... Palakurthi, S.
complete list of authors
Charbe, Nitin Bharat||Tambuwala, Murtaza||Palakurthi, Sushesh Srivatsa||Warokar, Amol||Hromić-Jahjefendić, Altijana||Bakshi, Hamid||Zacconi, Flavia||Mishra, Vijay||Khadse, Saurabh||Aljabali, Alaa A||El-Tanani, Mohamed||Serrano-Aroca, Ãngel||Palakurthi, Srinath