Comparative immobilization of wild felids in Thailand. Academic Article uri icon


  • We immobilized individuals of four free-ranging felid species, leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), Asiatic golden cat (Catopuma temminckii), and marbled cat (Pardofelis marmorata) with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride (KH-XH) and with tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride (TH-ZH) between March 1998 and July 2002. Mean (+/-SD) dose of KH and XH was 26.51+/-5.71 mg/kg and 1.89+/-0.43 mg/kg, respectively (n=25), and mean dose of TH-ZH was 11.61+/-3.39 mg/kg (n=28). Dose was significantly correlated with induction time (P<0.001) and duration of anesthesia (P<0.05), but not with recovery time. There were significant differences between the drug combinations in time to induction (P<0.03) and time to anesthesia (P<0.01); recovery times were not significantly different. We conclude that immobilization of these felids with TH-ZH and KH-XH is effective and safe, but TH-ZH is preferred because of the smaller volume of drug necessary for sedation, faster time to induction, and absence of prolonged muscle rigidity during anesthesia.

published proceedings

  • J Wildl Dis

author list (cited authors)

  • Grassman, L. I., Austin, S. C., Tewes, M. E., & Silvy, N. J.

citation count

  • 20

complete list of authors

  • Grassman, Lon I||Austin, Sean C||Tewes, Michael E||Silvy, Nova J

publication date

  • July 2004