Laboratory diagnosis of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection in domestic animals: A short review. Academic Article uri icon


  • Despite the known importance of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) in animals, there are no published guidelines for the diagnosis of CDI. The performance of the available commercial methods, all standardized for human stool samples, can vary according to the animal species. Thus, the aim of the present study was to review the literature on the detection of C.difficile in pigs, horses, and dogs. The detection of toxins A and B using enzyme immunoassays seems to have low performance in piglet and dog samples, while it shows high sensitivity for the diagnosis of CDI in foals. On the other hand, tests for the detection of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) have a high sensitivity towards detection of C.difficile in animal samples, suggesting that it can be an adequate screening method. A few studies have evaluated real-time PCR or nucleic acid amplification tests in animal samples and, so far, these methods have also shown a low performance for the detection of C.difficile in animals. Although the intestinal lesions caused by CDI can vary among animal species, histopathology can be a useful auxiliary tool for postmortem diagnosis in animals.

published proceedings

  • Anaerobe

author list (cited authors)

  • Carvalho, G. M., Ramos, C. P., Lobato, F., Guedes, R., Giaretta, P. R., & Silva, R.

complete list of authors

  • Carvalho, Gabriela Muniz||Ramos, Carolina Pantuzza||Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria||Guedes, Roberto Maurício Carvalho||Giaretta, Paula Roberta||Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira

publication date

  • January 1, 2022 11:11 AM