Fate and Transformation of 6:2 Fluorotelomer Sulfonic Acid Affected by Plant, Nutrient, Bioaugmentation, and Soil Microbiome Interactions. Academic Article uri icon


  • 6:2 Fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA) is a dominant per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) in aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)-impacted soil. While its biotransformation mechanisms have been studied, the complex effects from plants, nutrients, and soil microbiome interactions on the fate and removal of 6:2 FTSA are poorly understood. This study systematically investigated the potential of phytoremediation for 6:2 FTSA byArabidopsis thalianacoupled with bioaugmentation ofRhodococcus jostiiRHA1 (designated as RHA1 hereafter) under different nutrient and microbiome conditions. Hyperaccumulation of 6:2 FTSA, defined as tissue/soil concentration > 10 and high translocation factor > 3, was observed in plants. However, biotransformation of 6:2 FTSA only occurred under sulfur-limited conditions. Spiking RHA1 not only enhanced the biotransformation of 6:2 FTSA in soil but also promoted plant growth. Soil microbiome analysis uncovered Rhodococcus as one of the dominant species in all RHA1-spiked soil. Different nutrients such as sulfur and carbon, bioaugmentation, and amendment of 6:2 FTSA caused significant changes in - microbial community structure. This study revealed the synergistic effects of phytoremediation and bioaugmentation on 6:2 FTSA removal. and highlighted that the fate of 6:2 FTSA was highly influced by the complex interactions of plants, nutrients, and soil microbiome.

published proceedings

  • Environ Sci Technol

altmetric score

  • 0.5

author list (cited authors)

  • Yang, S., Shan, L., & Chu, K.

citation count

  • 2

complete list of authors

  • Yang, Shih-Hung||Shan, Libo||Chu, Kung-Hui

publication date

  • August 2022